INTRODUCTION: Moon (Form-Origin)
When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia.
Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated.
As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion.During the above mentioned process, the thick clouds surrounding Earth-Moon were causing heavy storms and on the outer surface of the rolling Moon, wherever small cavities -systolic cracks, existed, these would fill up with water. Then, due to the Moon's changing tilt, these cavities were sealed by sediments and as a result, small water tanks are scattered in the successive layers of the Moon, from its centre to its surface. (Fig. 1).
As this sphere (the Moon) continued to grow, the Earth-Moon system was displaying a double-planet image. The Moon's reverse rolling velocity increased according to the increase of its mass and volume. As the temperature on the surface of the Earth continued to fall, a larger number of bigger sized solid masses were descending from the poles towards the equator, and the Moon could no longer aggregate them. The gathering and interference of solid rocks of great mass acted as the catapult on which the Moon bounced off the Earth and was put into orbit around it. During its detachment, the Moon maintained its form, because its successive layers obtained great cohesion to each other, as they were created under conditions of great pressure and temperature. (Fig. 1)
During the Moon's detachment from the Earth, an umbilical cord of liquid mass was created between the Earth and the Moon, which was of greater density than the mass on the two bodies' surfaces, because it mainly originated from the area where the Moon's side was sunken.(Fig. 1)
As the Moon moved away from the Earth, the cord was severed and the part which remained with the Moon spread across its visible side, it evened its surface and created the Moon's "seas," while it changed the Moons' sphere-like shape, as its radius was increased and its centre of gravity moved 2.5 kilometres towards its visible side. During this procedure, small satellites were created from the cord's liquid mass. Some of them later fell on the Earth, while others fell on the Moon, creating its huge, but very shallow - because of the Moon's powerful structure - craters. The Moon's rock strata are distributed according to their density, to successive spherical shells, with lower density in the Moon's centre and higher on its surface.
The visible side of the Moon where its seas are has even higher density, due to the origin of the material that covered it (which originated from the mantle of the Earth). Because of the above, a gravity connection was created between the visible side of the Moon and the Earth. Furthermore, the Moon has no spin effect and regardless of the time it takes to rotate around the Earth, it will always show its one side.
After the Moon's detachment, the process of rock solidification continued at the Earth's poles, as well as their descent towards the equator. No new sphere was created during this phase, because the quantity and amplitude of solid masses were large, there was no rolling and the initial continent was formed, which increased rapidly in amplitude and mass. As a result, the shape of the Earth changed from spherical to oval, and the initial continent, on which gravity was significantly lower than on the rest of the Earth's surface, formed the top of the Earth. The increase of the coagulation rate gradually created a solid oceanic crust on the western, northern and southern part of the initial continent, and this crust gradually covered the Earth's entire surface. The oceanic crust is younger than the initial continent, and so it is denser than it.
When the oceanic crust became significantly thick and the temperature on its surface decreased, the steams at the Earth's atmosphere liquefied and fell on the planet. They remained there, thus creating the ocean which covered the entire planet, except for the initial continent. (Fig.2)
Due to favourable conditions (temperature, humidity and especially low gravity) plant and animal life on Earth exploded. Then, one of the small satellites (of those that were created by the umbilical cord during the Moon's detachment) fell on the initial continent. As a result of this impact, the initial continent was split and the new parts that were formed (continents) were now thinner and wider; the western part (America) rose, because the oceanic crust was swept out and gravity increased proportionally.
The splitting of the initial continent and the oceanic crust was followed by:
- Large tidal waves.
- Vaporization of great quantities of water, due to the crust's contact with the pyrosphere in areas where this was temporarily uncovered.
- Cataclysmic rainfalls that swept plants and animals from the surface of the continents, burying them at the shores together with plankton, in areas where continental parts converged. This is how petroleum deposits were formed. Plants and animals that were buried in valleys and mountain plateaus formed coal, when the waters ran off. The quantity of petroleum and coal corresponds to the size of the converged areas. (In Greece, the largest petroleum deposits are north of Crete, where huge North African areas converge, as well as in the Thermaic Gulf, while a little to the Gulf's north there are coal deposits).
Calm was restored on the Earth's surface and life developed and evolved for a long period of time. Relatively recently, one of the satellites which were created during the Moon's detachment (the last one) was approaching the Earth, because of its decaying orbit. At that time, humans could calculate the place (Mediterranean) and time of impact, and many of them took steps to deal with this challenge. They migrated to the eastern shore of Asia. There, they built covered vessels (arks) and moved away from the shore, sailing into the ocean, in order to tackle with the powerful tremors caused by the impact and the large tidal wave that followed. Those who survived later returned to the west (Indo-Europeans).
The most important geological effect of this impact was the displacement of the American continent to the west, where it remained. Also, the shape of the Earth became spherical. The quantity of water that vaporized was smaller this time, as the pyrosphere that was temporarily uncovered was only in the area of the Atlantic Ocean and it cooled and stabilized quickly. This is why the oceanic crust of the Atlantic is younger and denser than that of the Pacific.
EARTHQUAKES & VOLCANOES
CAUSES: Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are caused by:
A) The differential rotation of the Earth's lithosphere versus the pyrosphere rotation. The lithosphere loses a full rotation every approximately 100 pyrosphere rotations, and even more than that relatively to the core. (The differential axial rotation of the Earth's layers creates its strong electromagnetic field; and because of its uneven distribution of solid mass at its two hemispheres [crust and continents], the largest part of it being allocated at the northern hemisphere, shaking, along with a continuous increase of the geographical and magnetic axis radius, as well as polarity shifts [geographic and hence magnetic] all take place.
B) The existence of various elements (water, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, etc.) in the space between lithosphere and pyrosphere, which elements are constantly coming to the surface from the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity).
C) The existence of projections (mountain foundations and submergence of lithospheric plates)(Figures 3α-4α).
At the western sides of the projections the pressure is great, due to the differential movement between the crust and the pyrosphere, while east of the projections there is under-pressure (Figs 3a - 4a). When large concentrations of the above mentioned elements form between the crust and the pyrosphere, they are washed up by the pyrosphere under the flat surfaces of the crust, moving from west to east, without causing earthquakes, but producing certain distinctive sounds, which are often heard on the surface. When these elements meet projections, they gather on their western side, displacing the pyrosphere. There the separation of liquids from the pyrosphere is distinct. Because of their pressure and immobility, small quantities of these elements penetrate the solid crust and during their ascent to the surface, they vaporize, due to the dropping of pressure. The penetration of these components causes various phenomena, which can be observed on the surface of the specific location, some with special instrumentation and some without.
Some useful precursor phenomena to predict the epicenter of earthquakes are:
1) Crust and atmosphere temperature increase over the location
2) Changes to the level and temperature of underground waters,
3) Sulphuric smells and, in case there is a sea or lake over the expected epicentre, the dissolution of these elements in the water causes changes in the behaviour of water organisms or even deaths,
4) Electromagnetic changes, piezo-currents, etc.,
5) Effects on the weather (temperature increase - more obvious in winter time).
These phenomena occur more strongly 2 to 3 days before the earthquake. With the concentration of those liquids to the west of a projection, the pyrosphere is displaced and they occupy this space until they fill it to capacity and reach the lower point of the projection, from where they start escaping to the east.
Due to the fact that at the east of the projection there is under-pressure, the flow of these liquids accelerates. They vaporize, they are ionized and in the form of an explosion all of their mass passes to the east of the projection (Bernoulli Effect) (Figure 3β-4β).
At the time of their escape, various phenomena occur:
- Strong sound wave (rumble prior to earthquake).
-The gases are overheated due to internal friction and they are ionized.
-Under-pressure at the west of the projection.
The space that contained the above mentioned elements is now forcefully occupied by the liquid pyrosphere, which tends to follow the flow of the gases. Due to its greater viscosity, however, it collides with the projection and causes seismic tremor, cracks in the lithosphere and damages on the surface, especially at the epicentre and to its east.
The magnitude of an earthquake depends on:
-The quantity of components,
-the capacity, and
-and the angle of the ledge.
When a major earthquake occurs under the oceanic crust, at a collision angle to the pyrosphere vertical or almost vertical to the crust, there follows a rapid displacement of large masses of water (TSUNAMI), on the other hand, if the collision angle to a front (Figures 4a and 4b) is parallel to the crust, an earthquake of the same or even larger magnitude does not cause a tsunami. Also, undersea earthquakes and the phenomena that accompany them (strong electric fields, water enrichment with toxic gases, strong tremors) cause problems to the marine organisms in the area. At some places, the oceanic crust is especially thin and has cavities. This is mainly due to continuous breaches of the lithosphere, i.e., in the area of "the Bermuda Triangle" and elsewhere.(Figure 5)
When a large quantity of liquids is located under such a cavity, here also the phenomena related to earthquakes described above occur. In this case, however, no earthquake takes place, because at the same time these elements escape to the east, under-pressure is created in this space; the overlying oceanic water exerts great pressure on the crust, which breaks, because it is thin. The space the pyrosphere would occupy causing an earthquake is now occupied by water. Over this area, during the small period of time this phenomenon occurs, a momentary drop of water level is noticed, as well as under-pressure in the atmosphere and descending air currents. (If this occurs during the night, the water appears bright for a while, due to thermal radiation; if it occurs during the day, the water appears white, due to steams). Ships and airplanes flying at low height are crushed, because of water indraught, the creation of swirls and descending air currents. The time span of these phenomena is small, as the contact of water with the pyrosphere causes the crack of the crust to reconnect quickly and restore equilibrium.
FORESHOCKS & AFTERSHOCKS
When a large quantity of components (H2O, H2S, SO2, etc)is concentrated on the western side of a projection, sometimes, because of oscillation, a few hours before a large earthquake, small quantities of those components escape and cause small tremors (Foreshocks.
When a powerful earthquake occurs on the western side of a negative projection (mountain foundations and submergence of lithospheric plates) this projection breaks, creating many other smaller ones, with such angles, that quantities of elements passing from beneath them trigger many shocks of lower intensity, because of their smaller capacity (Aftershocks).
Aftershocks of bigger magnitude than the initial earthquake occur on the submergence front (Fig. 4b) on either side of the initial hypocentre, as the first powerful concussion creates a long fault towards north and south, and with the water indraught the seismic activity is prolonged. The frequency and magnitude of these aftershocks decrease with the passing of time, because the angles of these projections are dampened by their frequent collision with the pyrosphere. (Figure 3A-3B,3Β-4Β).
When there are cracks caused by previous earthquakes on the lithosphere, over the areas where earthquake-causing elements concentrate, or at the edges of lithospheric plates, the aforementioned elements that cause earthquakes gradually emerge towards the surface and on their way they vaporize due to pressure differences; they accelerate, their temperature increases significantly, their surrounding rocks melt, they broaden existing cracks and they sweep along an amount of magma (Lava).
According to the above, volcano eruptions follow earthquakes in specific areas. A volcanic eruption is accompanied by small earthquakes, because the outlet of gases usually takes place gradually and it begins when the first ones reach the western side of the projection. (Figure 6).
Α) The elements that cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions move from west to east. From statistical studies, taking an earthquake as a starting point, we can find out:
-the course these elements are going to follow towards the east
-the projections or volcanic craters they will meet on this course
-the time needed to reach them, and
-the magnitude of the expected earthquake.
For Greece we take as starting point the earthquakes that take place in Western America, between 0° and 40° parallel. The course that the elements will take run underneath the American continent's and the Atlantic Ocean's crust, they converge at Gibraltar, they enter the Western Mediterranean Sea and they reach Greece, where they will cause new earthquakes of proportional magnitude, unless four days before the expected date, when these elements pass underneath Italy, they come out to the atmosphere through the volcanoes Etna, Stromboli, or other.The time required for their journey is approximately 53 days. Leaving Greece, they continue their way east.
Β) In order to determine the epicenter, , we take into consideration the most reliable preceding phenomenon, which is the rise of the crust's temperature which forms a reversed cone shape, its top being the hypocentre and the centre of its base being the epicentre of the expected earthquake. Using a network of thermometers, connected to the underground water table through drilling or via satellite, we can monitor the rise of temperature, which is detected a few days before the manifestation of an earthquake. This way, we know where a specific quantity of these elements whose escape to the east will cause an earthquake is trapped. Using the first method we know the time, the magnitude and the approximate epicentre; the second method helps us determine the epicentre more precisely. The combination of these two methods allows us to predict an earthquake accurately. It should be noted that this prediction ceases to be valid, if a volcanic eruption occurs in the area between the starting-point earthquake and where the new earthquake is expected. The frequency and magnitude of earthquakes worldwide are reduced, when there is intense volcanic activity, and vice versa.
LONG TERM EARTHQUAKE FORECAST
When a big earthquake takes place in an area, a part of the projection breaks off and its angle is dampened, thus no other equal or bigger earthquake takes place in this area for a period of time.
The time necessary to restore this projection (either by coagulation or by tectonic plate front sinking) is statistically estimated. (FIG.3B-4B)
Certain earthquakes can be neutralized.
Utilizing the means mentioned above, we observe where there is a large concentration of elements under the lithosphere. If they pass underneath an active volcano, we can help terminate their east-bound course, like so: We create a lake near the crater to collect large volumes of water; we also store a large quantity of specially programmed and packaged explosives, which we channel inside the crater along with the water at the proper moment, according to the earthquake prediction method we are using. This explosive mixture can contribute to the opening of the crater and the venting of the elements which would have caused earthquakes further to the east.